Interview project engineer

1. How long have you been designing?
I have been designing ITPs and boiler houses for 12 years, since 2005.

2. How does your work usually begin? For example: from collecting initial data, filling in questionnaires?
Everything begins with communication with the customer and receiving a preliminary task from him, oral or written. Also from the customer it is necessary to obtain all the materials available to him (technical conditions for connecting to heat networks, if any). After this, the available data is analyzed and the necessary amount of survey work is determined. If it is necessary to determine the loads on the heat point (if necessary, the necessary calculations are made).
After the collection of all necessary data, a final report is compiled. a design task with all the necessary applications, is signed by the customer.

3. What documentation / legal base do you use when preparing thermal mechanical calculations?
In the production of design works, the current regulatory framework for boiler houses and ITPs (SNiP, GOST; SP) is used. Textbooks and other industrial literature like: "THERMAL CALCULATION OF BOILER UNITS NORMATIVE METHOD Under the editorship of the doctor tehn. N.V. Kuznetsov. " The instructions and recommendations of the equipment manufacturers are also applied.

4. What problems arise when obtaining the initial data? How do you solve them?
The main problem, which is actually always present in the design of the TP, is the lack of data on the connected internal engineering systems of the building. Their research has to be carried out in the course of survey work (this applies to the essence of objects, when designing ITPs in a new building, it is easier to obtain initial data on systems).

5. Do you agree with the design solutions that are prepared, as it happens?
The design solutions are coordinated at all stages of the design, both with the customer (or his representative) and with the designers performing adjacent sections (architecture, power supply, automation, VC). Also, the project is coordinated with the representatives of the networks to which the connection is made. Submission of docks for examination is carried out at the design stage "P".

6. How do you choose brands of equipment used?
The brand of equipment is determined at the stage of writing those design assignments. Either the customer from the operating experience chooses it, or the designer does this on the basis of his experience according to the criteria:
service at the design stage;
service at the stage of installation;
service at the stage of service (including after the warranty).

7. Do you use 3D modeling in your work? Does it provide something for your activities? And does this increase labor intensity of work?
Used, it reduces the time for reconciliation with subcontractors and allows the customer to see the TP in space. The laboriousness of the work is not increased as the design goes to REVIT.

8. Does the use of these 3D models increase the cost of work?
With BIM, the cost increase does not occur, with the usual ways of designing in AutoCAD and the cost and time will grow.

9. Have you met unscrupulous customers in work?
To a great regret met. Often, this is not the way to save money, or have already "mastered" it.

10. Where do you usually look for and find design orders? Is there a way to find customers?
Basically it is through acquaintances working in design or construction organizations. Also there is the Internet allowing through various services to find direct contacts of the customer and start communication.

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1. How long have you been designing?

Designing individual heat points (ITS) and boiler houses, I and my partners have been engaged since 2015.

2. How does your work usually begin? For example: from collecting initial data, filling in questionnaires?

Usually work on designing begins with primary discussions with the Customer and reception of data on object: about a building or other design which is required to heat.
Further, heat loss calculations and heat carrier requirements are performed, on the basis of which it is possible to obtain technical conditions from the heat supply organization. In these conditions, the characteristics of the coolant at the connection point are described, the technical requirements for the ITP are described, and the activities performed by the customer and the executor are described. For example, MOEK requires its conditions to be met so that it can ship the carrier in the proper quality and volume. As a rule, it is required that the system of commercial accounting is correctly executed in the project. Accordingly, it is necessary to try to take into account all requirements for installation and further maintenance of these heat points.

3. What documentation / legal base do you use when preparing thermal mechanical calculations?

For the correct definition of the legal regulation when designing ITP it is necessary to understand, with the thermal point of which particular object we are dealing with. If this is the heat point of a small country house, then it falls under the minimum requirements for private buildings and civil structures. And if this is the thermal point of an apartment building, office building, stadium, shopping center or industrial facility, then its design will be regulated by other legal acts that apply to industrial safety, labor protection, etc. Why is this happening? Because the Customer-private person first of all must deal with the values ​​of temperatures and pressures that are low in a private house and are not, as a rule, dangerous for human life. At the same time, the responsibility for everything done in a private home is borne by the Customer himself. Designing the same thermal points of industrial importance falls under the effect of such legal acts that regulate the construction of engineering facilities by legal entities. In this case, we are in the field of regulatory legal acts, imposing a lot of restrictions and requirements on the designer, and this is due, first of all, to the safety of people.

As for the legal regulation of our activities in general:
First, now the new regulations - technical regulations of the Customs Union (TR) are being developed and are in force, which are the main documents operating in the space of the entire customs union.
Secondly, GOSTs and SNIPs, other norms and rules, calculation tables on the basis of which the volume of the heat carrier, the cross-section of pipes and the velocity of the coolant in the pipes are calculated.
Thirdly, along with the requirements of the legislation, we rely on classical textbooks on heat mechanics, hydraulics, tables, reference books, which are considered to be generally accepted.
At the same time, questionnaires are used at the stage of designing the project and selecting specific equipment (the "taxiway stage"), which make it possible to create a specification, to assemble a boiler house or a heat point in the form of a list of equipment, materials, and other elements.

4. What problems arise when obtaining the initial data? How do you solve them?

When the source data is received, the problems, first of all, arise from the incorrectness of the source data itself. Customers tend to transfer them in the form of old documentation on buildings, structures, although this documentation at the time of contact with us, as a rule, is no longer true or absent at all. Therefore, in order to form a correct view of the source data of the object, it is necessary to go to the site and check the conformity of the architectural solutions, the possible intersection of the projected heating networks with the cable routes, with other existing and projected engineering networks and facilities.
In practice, engineering networks (for example, sewerage) can in fact be laid completely differently than indicated in the documentation. Because of this, when designing the heating networks and supplying the heat pipeline to the heat point, there are difficulties. Naturally, then they manifest themselves during installation, when, for example, they dig a trench under the laying of a pipeline, and there, from where it does not appear, a cable appears. networks and objects.
Inside the building in the heat station, there are about the same problems: the designers of the thermal points reflect their vision of the location of engineering networks, and later it turns out that the electrical wiring, pipelines or sewer systems are actually made by the builders in a completely different way. In this connection, it is necessary to adjust the location of pipelines and equipment, since when spacing the equipment in heat points that fall under the definition of industrial safety, their overall size must be taken into account, the distance between pipelines, depending on their diameters, must be taken into account, the equipment distances from one to another. The customer can recognize the error in the data, that the cable appeared where it should not be and promptly redraw everything - a big problem arises, because of this location of the cable, you have to change the location of the equipment. The equipment itself, as a rule, remains the same, because all hydraulic calculations are made, the calculations of the loads of electrical networks are made, the heat loads are calculated and this, as a rule, does not affect the location. Accordingly, when the location changes, additional pipelines appear, bends, the list for pipelines may change. Equipment sometimes has to be replaced with a smaller and more expensive one.
5. Do you agree with the design solutions that are prepared, as it happens?

Within the organization, coordination with the Customer is required.
Under certain conditions and operating conditions, the construction object falls under the guardianship of Rostechnadzor. There is a clear understanding of the design process, which is reflected in federal laws and by-laws (orders). The order of coordination is prescribed in federal laws, the list of documents to be submitted for approval is also indicated there, the terms are indicated in which the coordinating body must agree or present claims.
Criteria for the inclusion of objects under state expertise are also reflected in federal laws.

6. How do you choose brands of equipment used?

By different criteria: price - quality, experience with suppliers, wishes of the Customer. There are customers who basically want a certain brand of equipment to be chosen. It is necessary to take into account that the equipment used in Russia in Russia must be certified. The procedure for certification is reflected in normative legal acts.
There are some large organizations that require internal certification of equipment, for example, Gazprom. They have their own certification of GazpromSert. If equipment other than general certification is suitable for use under certain conditions by certain criteria, and it has already passed from Gazprom their internal certification, such equipment can be used without any prior approvals. Approximately the same approach is used by a number of power supply organizations that have long worked with some equipment, they have an understanding of how they will serve it, there are trained specialists. Nobody, as a rule, does not prohibit the use of other equipment, but it must be confirmed that it fits the required characteristics, that its quality will be the same or even better than the recommended equipment.

7. Do you use 3D modeling in your work? Does it provide something for your activities? And does this increase labor intensity of work?

3D-modeling recently used, it is very convenient and effective. Already at the design stage (stage "P") and the customer, and the general contractor, and other organizations that are interested in building a heat point, see a clear idea of ​​the location of all equipment. This makes it possible to evaluate the correctness of placement and the possibility of servicing. Earlier plans for placing equipment were created in an axonometric projection, but as a rule, it did not reflect the real picture of the object, even though the dimensions were exhibited. Of course, based on experience, it is possible to really form an idea of ​​how a thermal point will look like, but this is not enough for a complete picture.
When there is a three-dimensional 3D solution, all participants in the process have a real understanding of how this heating station or boiler house will function, there is an opportunity to discuss the project with people whose knowledge in this area is superficial, but which already have some wishes. There is an opportunity to discuss the intersection of networks with subcontractors, which perform other engineering networks. Immediately you can see where there are vacant seats. Take, for example, a heat exchanger. It can not be cooled quickly from outside, quickly heated, it must be thermally insulated, accordingly, it should be placed at a certain distance from some ventilation devices. If there is a volumetric drawing of the heat point, then the person from the subcontractors who projects, in this case, ventilation, will look at the three-dimensional image and say: "And we just wanted to place a ventilation duct where the cold air will go. Let's agree on this placement. "
Thus, 3D-modeling gives a full idea of ​​how the equipment will be placed in a heat point. This is a very important point.

8. Does the use of these 3D models increase the cost of work?

Enlarges. Since the drawing of the 3D model is associated with the drawing of volumetric objects in space, this requires time, intellectual costs. Again, when drawing, the designer has to return to other sections of the project in order to again check again whether he correctly laid out the installation dimensions, some passes through the walls, placing the equipment in one or another place. Otherwise, just do not draw. Therefore, as a result, there is an increase in labor costs, and development costs, while significantly improving the quality of the project.

9. Have you met unscrupulous customers in work?

Of course, I met him. Their existence, first of all, is caused by the crisis in the country. Regardless of the welfare of my customers, the need for heating does not disappear anywhere. There are customers who find a way of long-term investment, go to replace expensive equipment with a cheaper one, somehow manage this situation somehow. And there are dishonest Customers who find a way to not pay, cheat, but this is the topic of a separate dialogue. There are some mechanisms to combat such phenomena.

10. Where do you usually look for and find design orders? Is there a way to find customers?

A very large role in the search for orders is played by the Internet. On certain order portals very often there are customers who need to build an individual heat point or a boiler house of small capacity. You contact them, prepare a technical and commercial proposal. There is, for example, a public procurement portal, which can be used after the registration procedure. There are several sections where tenders are exhibited. In that order, you can participate and win orders. As a rule, it is associated with high costs and a lesser opportunity to communicate with the customer, bargain, less likely to win. When drawing tenders, everything is built on such an algorithm - whoever offers less is the one who wins. There is a limit below which you do not need to get down to work, because it simply can not be done qualitatively, but by following the algorithm of the auction, you realize that people fall even lower, by 10%, 15%, 20% ... Looking at it, you understand , that it is so unrealistic to do the work normally. I see that the people are fighting, they continue to win, but what happens there at the end and what is fate is already a question. Therefore, lately I refuse to participate in tenders.
There are private customers with whom I once worked and continue to work, they occasionally throw up some tasks, some tasks on installing heat points. They recommend me and my colleagues to their friends on the results of work. Such proven customers are more stable, because they began to work with them and continue.
There are customers who come to me on the theory of six handshakes. They are looking for, as a rule, several performers. But as a result of the interview, discussions, presentation of my portfolio, as a rule, they choose me. And then work begins.
# ITP, # Thermal station, # Engineering, # 3D, # Simulation, # Boiler house

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