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Below is an example of a concept for creating an automated control system for a waste processing plant

The main tasks that are set before the concept are to determine the range of tasks, to determine the composition of automated systems. As a rule, the need for a concept arises with a complex organizational structure of an enterprise, where it is difficult to take into account all the components of the process and find one single customer for the final product. Sometimes management needs one thing, and middle managers need something else.

The concept helps to determine the preliminary cost of the event.




1 Process automation system

1.1 Block diagram

1.2 Organization chart

1.3 Description of the composition of process automation objects

1.4 Automation subsystems

1.5 Control room

1.5.1 Description of WinCC

1.5.2 Description of servers

1.5.3 Means of displaying information

1.5.4 SIEMENS Automation Tools


3 Stages of work on the implementation of automated process control systems





This Concept sets out a set of solutions for the implementation of an automation system, structured cabling systems, a remote monitoring and reporting system at a waste processing plant located at the address: Omsk (hereinafter also referred to as the facility).

The objectives of this Concept are:

- in a simple and accessible language to convey to the end user the main aspects of building a process control system, a network laying system;

- disclosure of the main technical solutions for supplementing the automation system already existing at the facility with new measured parameters;

- coordination with the facility operation service of methods and means of implementing this modernization in order to avoid conflicts at the level of subsystems existing at the facility;

- formation of the integrator's idea of ​​the functions of the automated monitoring system and reports with the transfer to the Customer of an agreed list of changes to be made.

- ensuring the necessary and sufficient level of organizational personnel, as well as minimizing the cost of maintaining the entire system.

The objectives of this Concept include:

- description of the integration of the implemented system into the automation system already existing at the facility;

- ensuring a high level of ergonomics of using the object, including the convenience of centralized control;

- ensuring a high level of reliability of individual components (equipment) and systems as a whole during their operation and maintenance;

- integration of all existing systems into a single dispatching system;

- reducing the cost of operating the facility throughout its entire life cycle;

- implementation of all engineering solutions in the most accessible and understandable form, including sketches.


APCS - Automated process control system

SCS - Structured Cabling Systems

TK - Terms of Reference

SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition - operator control and data acquisition

WinCC Windows Control Center is a trademark of the SCADA system

PLC - Program Logic Controller

ARM - automated workplace

ABK - Administrative block building

1 Process automation system

This section of the Concept contains a description of the process automation system, the main function of which is to prevent extraordinary events in the process of operation, as well as the formation of an archive and analysis of current parameters.

1.1 Block diagram

The block diagram presented in Appendix 1 to this Concept reflects the main decisions on the functional structure of the APCS of the facility in compliance with the hierarchy of the system and the relationship between the control and management functions, operational personnel and the technological control object.

The block diagram is a three-level facility management system with branched technological connections between installations and implements the Zvezda network topology, the description of which is presented in Section 2.1 of this Concept.

The upper level of management is the level of servers and SCADA systems.

The middle level of control is the level of network devices and industrial automation tools, such as a controller, a hub (switch), visualization panels placed on the doors of automation cabinets.

The lower control level is the level of field devices (sensors, actuators, air conditioners, - any actuators).

The distributed-centralized architecture of the facility is built on the principle of high network reliability, as well as an open protocol based on the Profibus protocol. With this distribution, a compromise is reached between the reliability of the system components and the scope of functions that are embedded in them.

Integration of all premises of the facility into one system based on the Profibus protocol will allow displaying the system status on the visualization panel and effectively remotely control the automation object. With such an architecture, the object automation system is scalable (expandable) both in terms of the composition of signals and the composition of protocols and subsystems.

The main component of the process automation system is the WinCC SCADA package. These are three industrial computers pre-installed with the Windows operating system. The version of the operating system must comply with the requirements for the software used (specified during design).

Controllers for workshops and office premises are offered to choose PLC SIEMENS S7-400 and Quadlog. Controllers of this type will be placed in different parts of the facility to ensure the collection, remote control and transmission of information from various automation objects. These controllers will collect signals from all necessary subsystems, control three-position valves of heat exchange circuits, conveyors and control furnace heating zones.

1.2 Organization chart

The organizational chart, presented in Appendix 2 to this Concept, shows the list of documentation required to create a process automation system and integrate all existing systems into it. The documents included in the organizational chart are designed to reduce the influence of the human factor in the production of complex multi-level systems.

These documents include:

PLC-ARM interface

The PLC-ARM interface is a basic document for designing data exchange (address space distribution) between controllers and servers of the SCADA system located in the APCS system of the facility.

The PLC-ARM interface describes the distribution of variables to device memory addresses. From this document, it is possible to distinguish the composition of the designed control and indication functions. This document is the basis for creating variables in SCADA systems.

Explanation: for example, there is an object, type "Fan", the personal name of this instance is "PV1". This object has three variables - command word, status word, violation word. Each word has 16 bits. The state of the bit is the state of the properties of each parameter of the object. All this is created so as not to get confused and at the same time agree with the Customer on the list of parameters output to the process automation system.

Video frame album

An album of video frames is a set of mnemonic diagrams, with the help of which the object will be subsequently controlled.

An album of video frames is created to record the decisions made when creating a SCADA system and allows you to solve a large number of issues related to the choice of a navigation model, the composition of elements on video frames of visualization panels and screen forms of the operator station at the early stages of work.

I/O table

The input-output table (character table) is a list of input and output signals, which include, for example, the measurement range, threshold limits, types of devices, types of protection, etc. Without this document, it is impossible to approach the assessment of the volume of the system, the composition of control objects, to the creation of design documentation.

Description of algorithms

The description of the algorithms is a graphical representation of the object control algorithms with reference to the I/O table. This document is necessary for the most correct implementation of the controller code in accordance with the requirements of the Customer. This document is a link between the Customer and the programmer who implements the application software.

Control algorithms should cover the object technology as much as possible so that the PLC programmer and / or the process automation system programmer have an unambiguous understanding of the technical task.

The description of the algorithms must take into account all the states of the control objects, as well as all possible violations of the process equipment.

Description of reporting forms

This program is a collection of interconnected tables and/or graphical forms. These tables receive information from the I / O servers and from the controller, designed to collect this information.

The tables provide fields in which it is supposed to enter the values of technological parameters manually.

The reporting program implements the level of access to the report server, and also forms the requirements for organizational support (the purpose of reports).

Classification and coding system

When examining the object, it was revealed that on the screen forms of the existing automated control system there is no clearly defined classification of automation objects (sensors, pumps, filters, etc.).

In this regard, the main purpose of this document is to define the rules for the formation of names of technological parameters. The name of the parameter should clearly convey to any representative of the operation of the object information about the functional and physical purpose of the device.

1.3 Description of the composition of process automation objects

JTs1 - jet ski No. 1;

JTs2 - jet ski No. 2;

JT3 - jet ski No. 3;

DZ1 - dispenser No. 1;

DZ2 - dispenser No. 2;

DZ3 - dispenser No. 3;

AGR - agglomerator;

BP - briquetting press;

SC - sorting conveyor;

MD - magnetic drum;

CCM - container for collecting metal;

CP - control panel;

SN - screen;

FWG - food waste grinder;

MPG - mineral part grinder;

PT - feeding conveyor. Scheme of the waste sorting complex: 1 - zone for unloading garbage trucks and receiving solid waste; 2 - loading conveyor; 3 - drum screen; 4 - container for receiving undersize fraction; 5 - sorting cabin; 6 - bins for secondary materials; 7 - sorting conveyor; 8 - feeding conveyor; 9 – magnetic metal separator; 10 - hydraulic press.

1.4 Automation subsystems

APCS of the facility is a centralized control system for mechanical and electrical life support systems, accounting and monitoring systems.

This system includes the following functional application subsystems:

- automated control system for waste sorting systems;

- ACS of kilns;

- ACS of the gas cleaning system;

- ACS of the power supply system;

- ACS for water supply and sewerage, treatment facilities;

- ACS of fire extinguishing systems;

- ACS of security systems (video surveillance, voice warning system);

Optimization of system operation parameters is performed by the operator on the basis of statistical data (reports).

All components of the APCS of the facility use the complex's fiber optic network as communication channels, which will be described in the document "External Network Connections".

The delay time between the event "taking readings" and "visualization", as well as between pressing the control element and acting on the actuator, should be no more than 2 seconds.

1.5 Operator room

All object management functions are carried out from the central workstation, which allows you to have control over all engineering systems of the object.

The ability of the operator to exercise control over the object is limited by access rights. Access rights are determined by the regulations of the object, which is approved by the Customer.

1.5.1 Description of WinCC

WinCC is a human-machine interface software that is part of the Simatic family of automation systems manufactured by Siemens AG. Works under control of operating systems of the Microsoft Windows family.

The main features of WinCC are:

- visualization of the technological process;

- configuring and setting up communication with controllers from different manufacturers;

- display, archiving and logging of messages from the technological process;

- display, archiving and logging of variables;

- designing a reporting system;

- simple integration of WinCC into the internal information network;

- simple construction of "client-server" systems;

- construction of redundant systems;

- open OPC interface.

1.5.2 Server Description

The process automation system is built on the basis of servers in industrial design (see Fig. 1).

Консольный ПК

Figure 1. iROBO industrial server

Five identical interchangeable servers with pre-installed software are offered for installation at the facility. Such a layout of the system allows, in case of urgent need, to quickly restore the system to working capacity by combining two servers into one. It is also convenient when ordering components for these servers, as they are unified within the system.

Each server has its own functionality.

The first server is the WinCC I/O Server.

The second server is a duplicate WinCC I/O server.

The first two servers receive signals from automation objects and display information on the operator's screens.

The third server is an archive server (Historian) and provides up to three years of continuous accumulation of all possible archive data.

The fourth server is video surveillance and video archive.

Fifth - reserve.

The specified servers are inserted into racks with a transparent door (see Figure 2).

Automation cabinet

Figure 2. Rack for industrial servers

1.5.3 Means of displaying information

These tools are planned to be made from two 19-inch monitors (see Fig. 3).

Automation cabinet

Figure 3. Monitor 19”

The means of visual control are supposed to be placed in the operator's office, which will be located in the 1st AB.

Each screen is interchangeable and allows you to distribute objects in such a way that it is convenient for the operator to monitor the object. For example:

1st monitor: general view;

2nd monitor: approaching the place where the violation occurred.

Three operators working in three shifts will be enough to ensure the life of the facility.

The task of the operator will include alerting the operating personnel (electrician, automation specialist, mechanic, chief engineer) about an emergency situation at the facility, and, if necessary, intervention in the situation - security services.

For the convenience of managing the facility's equipment maintenance scheme, a "hint" will be created in the form of a dialog box popping up on the screen with confirmation buttons for accepting this message.

All warning and alarm messages issued to the operator will have a priority flag from 1 to 999. Each message priority is broken down by the severity of the event. Such a breakdown of events by priority will allow the operator to more quickly influence the process from the standpoint of the importance of events, as well as reduce the impact of the human factor on facility management.

1.5.4 SIEMENS Automation Tools

SIEMENS controllers are offered as basic means of automation. The equipment of this company was selected by the Customer through a tender.


This section of the Concept contains a description of all the main features of constructing the topology of object networks.

The presence of a dedicated SCS system allows you to transfer the video stream to the video surveillance system without loss in proper quality, which allows you to provide a guaranteed response of automation tools up to one second from the moment you press the button on the operator's workstation and until the reverse action on the actuators of the object.

The WinCC I/O Server (Operator's Workstation) distributes packets to the corresponding addresses on the network. If there is no connection with the automation object, the operator's workstation generates a diagnostic message that gives an idea of ​​the nature of the malfunction.

Diagnosis of links between network components will be provided by the "S-7 communication" system. This is such a programmatic way of interaction between network components, when one of its elements passes the value of a variable to the associated network component, which increases this value by one and returns it to the sender of the telegram.

Thus, the entire network becomes self-monitoring from any part of it, even with a complete failure of the central operator's station.

3 Stages of work on the implementation of automated process control systems

1. Inspection of the object

1.1. Communication with representatives of the object;

1.2. Generalized acquaintance with the object;

1.3. Familiarization with the technological process;

1.4. Obtaining primary information about the operation of the object on electronic media.

2. Creation and approval of the Concept

2.1. Creation of the main theses of the Concept;

2.2. Creation of the block diagram of the object;

2.3. Creation of the organizational chart of the object.

3. Description of TK

3.1. Creation of a list of measured parameters that the Integrator and the Customer agreed to enter into the monitoring and reporting system;

3.2. Description of the composition and scope of project documentation for the creation of an automated process control system;

3.3. Description of individual conditions and requirements for the installation of devices and automation equipment.

4. Design of the APCS system.

4.1. Creation and approval of a set of documents (according to the organizational chart of the facility), which allows for the installation of automation equipment and provide the facility operation service with the necessary executive documentation;

4.2. Coordination of installation features when installing the necessary devices.5. Delivery of cabinets and installation of equipment.

6. Commissioning.


The main technical solutions proposed in this Concept make it possible to ensure the implementation of a process automation system, structured cabling systems, a remote monitoring and reporting system at the enterprise, and make it possible to identify a number of tasks that are highly labor-intensive.

This Concept is intended to specify a number of engineering solutions that precede the design, and is drawn up in a way that is understandable to the representatives of the Customer.


Structural scheme

* designations on the diagram are given conditionally, without reference to real premises

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