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Smart home, preparation of technical specifications

Dialogues about the implementation of smart home functions

Dialogues about the implementation of smart home functions

Smart home what is it and how? What to call smart. and what is not? - the main task of such a house is to be comfortable and adaptable to the wishes of the customer

Somehow we talked with Dmitry (he had long dreamed of a smart home) and began to work out the terms of reference, the list of possible wishes for creating a system for a smart home.

Smart home where to start?

Good question. The answer lies in the formalization of all future Wishlist. If the owner has a bad idea of what he wants, then this is bad for all participants.

Here's what came out of the discussion (taken out dialogues from our correspondence):

1. ***********************************************

Customer requirement

Instrument operation parameters, binding scenarios to rooms and events should be stored inside the program, they should be stored separately and synchronized in the system for possible adjustments. A list of such parameters should be defined separately.

Integrator's comment (developer)

I suggest storing all settings and parameters in Scud. You can optionally link Scuda to a file where all recipes/parameters will be stored. Scada will be initialized upon restart and then distribute parameters to controllers.

Customer response

If Scada is needed only for writing to the database, then this is an expensive solution. For example, the VAGO PLC can write to the database, there is a corresponding library there. We need to discuss. Rdp is a definite plus. But you need to look at all the functionality of Citect.

2. ***********************************************

Customer requirement

System self-diagnosis.

Integrator's comment

All smart components on the network will have diagnostics (self, connected circuits + life variable for the master).

3. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Hardware and data redundancy.

Integrator's comment

There is an option to invest in the closet in advance the second set of what can burn or fail. So you can repair more quickly.

Customer response

It turns out that if the equipment is cheap, it is better to buy more expensive and more reliable. And if it’s expensive, you’ll go broke on the second sets.

To the customer's response

OWEN I/O is quite reliable and relatively inexpensive. I see that for this task a bunch of WAGO PLC + OWEN will be ideal - secondary modules, painted on different floors and niches. They are easy to change, they are well diagnosed.

4. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Protection against false alarms: what to do with abnormal sensor values, for example, when they fail or turn off - checking values at the software level.

Integrator's comment

There will be a sign that the line is closed or open. If you mean security sensors, then you will have to put resistors in the gap and use analog inputs. Must be specified in advance.

Customer response

Situation: when the system is rebooted, the new sensor values will be equal to 0, the system will start responding to this. The same is true when the sensors fail. In theory, the operating ranges of the sensors should be set at the software level. Eg air temperature sensor -40 to +50. Any deviations outside the range = malfunction.

To the customer's response

Overload is a rare occurrence, indeed accompanied by occasional false reports. If it fails, it will be automatically excluded from operation in the system.

5. ************************************************

Требование Заказчика

Discrete variables with a value of 1 or 2. If the sensor is faulty, it will output 0 to the system. using a byte instead of a bit loads the program and memory.

Integrator's comment

We will not diagnose the serviceability of a discrete sensor in any way, alas. Such is the reality. We can diagnose only the module where it is connected.

6. ************************************************

Customer requirement

When programming, it is necessary to immediately foresee what will happen if the sensor turns off, because. it is impossible to unconditionally tie the entire system to the operation of the sensor, otherwise, if the sensor fails, the system will fool.

Integrator's comment

That's how it's always done. Important algorithms provide for the failure of devices. If he refused, then there are manual or remote modes. In unimportant ones, it is simply crossed out and a malfunction is signaled.

Customer response

Then you need to classify all algorithms into critical, important and ordinary.

To the customer's response

You can make everything critical, just think through the logic of the algorithm in case of device failure. This will be in the development of algorithms. Everything must be described before programming. So development is somewhat more expensive, but then there are fewer questions.

7. ************************************************

Customer requirement

It is necessary to think over the reservation of all options: 1) if the slave stopped working; 2) if the controller stopped working. On the one hand, the solution is the redundancy of modules, on the other hand, if you configure and disable individual systems, they must somehow continue to work in a clumsy mode without smart regulation - the light must turn on, heating, ventilation work, security alarms must have a standard alarm input signal and a separate input signal from the smart home - e.g. via a relay from the controller - i.e. there should be a separation of alarm networks from the installer of the security guard and the network.

Integrator's comment

I don't see the point of installing redundant controllers. This is not a nuclear power plant, not a chemical plant, not a mine. It is easier to install single, but good equipment with a power reserve. If it refuses, it will not be soon, but in this case, think over the scenario and minimize the risks. For everything that is Important, it should be duplicated by stupid, bypass electrical circuits. If smart does not work, we work with handles from the shield. Divide networks into two or three - hello.

8. ************************************************

Customer requirement

For each type of sensor, it is necessary to determine what value it should be set to if the equipment does not respond.

Integrator's comment

I usually do 1.111. It is rare to find such a combination. If you see on the PDA instead of the temperature of the unit - the failure of either the device or communication with it. I suggest this to make it easier to understand the system.

9. ************************************************

Customer requirement

The system should signal and show on the panel about the failure of elements. I mean interfaces: web interface and iridium.

Integrator's comment

If there is iridium, then the web interface is useless. Somehow I do not want to produce applications. The more handmade, the more significant the human factor. On one application there will be some errors, on the other others.

10. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Recording and restoring settings and setpoints in the permanent memory of the PLC.

Integrator's comment

Everything is stored by default. You can even store the last entered values (retentive).

11. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Recording the readings of all sensors in the database with a set frequency, depending on the type of sensor.

Integrator's comment

All this is done by the SCADA layer.

12. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Registration of the readings of all sensors should be carried out in matrix data arrays by types of sensors, where a uniform index of the variable in the array allows you to identify the floor and the room on the floor.

Integrator's comment

Identification will be carried out in accordance with the classification and coding system, which we will develop jointly. Archiving of all readings is the task of the SCADA system.

13. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Separation of software and equipment according to the frequency of signal processing from sensors. Where fast response (light) is required, processing all parameters will slow down system operation and response. Therefore, it is better not to include disabled parameters (security sensors) in one algorithm with light. The same goes for heating. Need to discuss.

Integrator's comment

The system will work with more than one cycle, of course. Will be distributed to different PLCs, each PLC has different tasks with different cycle. If you do not intend to cram all this into one PLC, there is nothing to worry about. Each PLC will stand in its own cabinet. The roles of the cabinet will be strictly defined.

14. ************************************************

Customer requirement

To create system web programming interfaces, all parameters and settings must be contained in the matrix on the control PC and translated to the PLC to achieve redundancy of all parameters (settings).

Integrator's comment

The interface will be connected to the Scada system. The Scada system will contain all the necessary settings that it will broadcast to its associated PLCs.

Customer response

Will a PC with SCADA be a more reliable storage location than a PLC?

To the customer's response

According to the set of all Wishlists, your object is a full-fledged mini-factory. Only a PC will be able to accumulate such a volume of disparate information in itself (and, what is no less important, to display it). The PLC is good because it is unloaded from all these screw problems, its task is to manage the object around the clock and all year round.

15. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Possibility to revise scenarios by assigning links between parameters, eg via the web interface. All algorithms and scenarios must be structured so that any new one can be created by assigning links between any parameters existing in the system. Roughly speaking, I want to start a warm floor in the kitchen from the button of the light switch in the bedroom so that this can be done. For example, so that this can be done by assigning new relationships between the parameters to the algorithm base.

Integrator's comment

A scenario is not a table of linear interactions. Somewhere this is a sequence of actions, and somewhere rather ornate logic. I see this approach as somewhat utopian in implementation, but if you can put all the scenarios on a sheet in an understandable language, show how it will look graphically, we will do it. I still see that you yourself will be able to add scripts when operating at home, it will be many times easier than redoing several applications, only because some function was not provided.

16. ************************************************

Customer requirement

All alerts should be assigned severity classes, e.g. so that only very important events are alerted in sleep mode.

Integrator's comment

This is implemented on the basis of the PLC.

17. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Alert channels:

1. Speakers

2. Alarm on the control panel

3. SMS to preset mobile phone numbers

4. Call to preset mobile phone numbers

5. Email to preset mobile phone numbers

6. Teletext on TV included

Integrator's comment

I know how to send SMS to given mobile phone numbers. A modem connected to the PLC is required. For the rest, you will have to take consultations yourself. Let's call these functions multiroom. There are companies and individuals who specialize in this. You can agree on the interaction interface.

Customer response

OK. It seems to me that for this you need to look for PC-based software solutions. By the way, about the multiroom. I think you need to accurately look for a solution on the software, because. hardware solutions become obsolete very quickly and their upgrade is very expensive.

To the customer's response

There are pitfalls in such a solution on a PC. Firstly, the Scud will communicate with the modem, the module with the message codes will be in the PLC. SMS is sent by a device with a SIM card, that is, a modem. Of course, you can also sharpen a USB modem for this, but it is important that it works with a guarantee, an industrial solution is buggy much less often.

One way or another, hardware solutions are more important than software ones. The exchange interface is also a hardware solution. Without the presence of ports supporting the protocol known to us, we will not connect the equipment.

18. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Management of internal, facade, landscape lighting - house inside, external zones, facade, gazebos, paths, parking, gate.

Integrator's comment

Let's decide on the type and number of lamps and light bulbs. If this is fluorescent lighting, then this is dimming with DALI ballasts. If these are electric spotlights, then these are starters or latters. Depends on the power, the number of lamps in the beam, the need for smooth (percentage) ignition.

19. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Control both from conventional switches and from any interface.

Integrator's comment

All switches will be connected to the controllers. The master will understand and remember where and who pressed what. If you fell asleep, he will turn off the light and illuminate it dimly, for example, if you get up (motion sensor).20. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Automatic switching on / off / dimming of internal and external lighting depending on the illumination.

Integrator's comment

If there is a sensor that measures ambient light, then this will be either one of the scenarios, or an optional feature of each of the lighting scenarios.

Customer response

Yes. It turns out the following: the lighting scheme is a discrete parameter, and adjustment to the level of illumination is an analog parameter. The question is this: I planned to use a large number of energy-saving lamps, and they are discrete.

Therefore the options are:

1. The lighting scheme is only a set of switched-on lamps, their brightness level adjusts to street lighting.

2. Street illumination can be divided into ranges: each range has its own lighting scheme. Schemes are ranked according to the level of light.

3. Your option, which, in fact, is a combination of the first two.

To the customer's response

An energy saver is, in fact, a fluorescent lamp, only with a base and a ballast inside. They do not serve long, they stand like a fighter, if you take a lot. Brightness cannot be controlled. Are you comfortable changing them? Why change them? A fluorescent lamp in the incandescent floor, controlled by a DALI ballast, will last longer, and when it stops working, the ballast will inform you about it. You decide.

21. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Turning on external lighting by light sensor - through the operating modes of the building.

Integrator's comment

When we develop lighting scenarios, we will discuss and describe it in detail. It will be called “Description of algorithms”.

22. ************************************************

Customer requirement

To avoid the influence of light fluctuations, the thresholds for turning on and off the light should differ by 10%.

Integrator's comment

Rather, there is a delay timer needed. If a cloud has come and hangs for more than 5 minutes, is this not a reason to announce that it has become dark and turn on the backlight. You can turn it off without a timer.

Customer response

Let me explain: some parameters (illuminance, temperature) change very inertially, so perhaps a response range is needed. For example, to turn on the 1st lighting scheme, the illumination should drop to 1000 lux, and to turn it off, it should rise to 1100 lux. Otherwise, multiple illumination around 1000 lux is possible. A timer is also an option, but it won't account for abrupt changes. I mean here not only illumination, but any analog sensors.

To the customer's response

The option of switching on by hysteresis (what you suggested) is quite satisfactory, simple and logical.

23. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Automatic on / off according to the algorithms for determining the presence of people in the room, the direction of their movement.

Integrator's comment

Realizable if there is a motion sensor in each zone and the selected control strategy in the house at the time of the passage of a person.

24. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Automatic shutdown of light in rooms where there are no people - based on data from the IR sensor.

Integrator's comment

Yes, this is no problem. Pick up a sensor.

25. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Discrete switching and lighting dimming.

Integrator's comment

DALI.

26. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Smooth switching on and off of incandescent lamps (to increase their service life).

Integrator's comment

Are you going to use incandescent bulbs? If so, then some kind of controlled latters. It is necessary to study this part of the work, it is likely that DALI has such devices.

Customer response

Can this be done with dimmers?

To the customer's response

What is not in nature. But if I did it for myself, I would try to make lighting on lamps of the same type, so it will be easier to maintain.

27. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Binding of each light fixture in the zone/room - data table in the system.

Integrator's comment

Rather, in the designation of each device, we encode the name of the room and the place where the lamp is located. You can also place current transformers and monitor what current flows through the circuit, if it is less than the setting, it means there is a break somewhere, go look into this zone.

28. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Setting up light scenes through the interface: creating a new scene based on the current values of the lighting fixtures selected in the interface, for this, the ability to select all lighting fixtures in the room with one button.

Integrator's comment

Implemented on the basis of Sitekta. There will be a recipe page with questions and Yes/No checkboxes. Answer differently, here is a new recipe for you. You asked it yourself.

Customer response

Same as for DALI: is there any presentation/manual for beginners?

To the customer's response

No, it's in my head. Did something similar. Imagine the work of a hurdy-gurdy, now imagine that there is a table and you can set the checkboxes differently. We start the hurdy-gurdy. We hear completely different music. Arrangement of rollers - your recipe.

29. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Facade lighting on in the evening, off at night.

Integrator's comment

Timer. Will be implemented in the master (PLC).

Customer response

Or the level of illumination. Shutdown - already on schedule, or illumination of choice in the system.

To the customer's response

Turn on by light level, turn off by timer.

30. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Automatic control of lighting according to the specified operating modes of knowledge / rooms, launching scenarios

Integrator's comment

To be implemented in the master (PLC).

31. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Place light sensors so that they are not affected by facade lighting.

Integrator's comment

How many light sensors will there be? It always seemed to me that one on the sunny side of the house is enough. All other scenarios can be proportionally associated with it, since it always fades everywhere proportionally

Customer response

We definitely need a division into N and S, perhaps one more - into E or W.

32. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Because the illumination can be very high, the threshold of 10,000 - 65,000 lux may prevent the measurement of radiation, leading to strong heating of the premises through the windows. Use multiple light sensors with different ranges?

Integrator's comment

I like the idea of solar heating. If it is light on the side of the house, we open the blinds, the temperature will increase, therefore, the coolant regulator will close itself, since the delta between SP (setpoint) and PV (temperature) will decrease.

Customer response

Yes, there are two effects: 1) use solar heat to heat batteries less (here, perhaps, a simple heating algorithm based on the air temperature in the room is enough). 2) close the blinds/curtains when the light is too bright.

To the customer's response

Can be combined.

33. ************************************************

Customer requirement

Emergency lighting system

Integrator's comment

For emergency lighting, a starter is started, its own lines, possibly with a battery, through a normally closed contact of the starter. When the main power fails spontaneously, the starter is released and emergency lighting turns on independently. PLC has nothing to do with it.

Customer response

Yes, apparently, a regular UPS with a binding of protected sockets, power lines to the UPS.

34. ************************************************

Customer requirement

How will the system understand that the light is on? Variable? What switches to use?

Integrator's comment

If the system has signaled a variable, and the lamp is connected to it, then there is a possibility that it is not lit, and the TRUE variable is minimal. The most common switches are needed, only the wires will be thinner from them, these are discrete inputs.

Customer response

I meant the following: if the switch is an ordinary switch, then when triggered by other algorithms, the switch will remain in the same position. Therefore, it is better to use push-button, or even better, capacitive switches. There is also a question with the aesthetic appearance of these switches. I have several types in mind, you can order for a sample - however, the capacitive one works from 220, and when the electricity is turned off, this can become a problem. A pushbutton switch in combination with an impulse relay is a good option that will work even when the PLC is turned off. And it is important that my wife does not eat me later for a brainless house without light.

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